Research Reports WTO


Reforming the WTO: Developing Countries in the Doha Round
This book helps bring to centre-stage the role that developing countries have played over the decades in the multilateral trading system and makes a number of useful proposals for reforming and strengthening the system.

Agricultural Export Restrictions: Welfare Implications and Trade Disciplines

Agricultural Export Restrictions


Domestic Preparedness for Services Trade Liberalisation Are South Asian Countries Prepared For Further Liberalisation?
The service sector today dominates economic activity at virtually every stage of development of a country making service trade liberalisation a necessity for its integration with the global economy. This Book provides an overview of the services sector of a country, underlines the reasons for its growth and identifies its contributions to various South Asian economies in terms of output, employment, trade and investment flows. It also contains experiences of South Asian countries regarding their multilateral commitments and requests and offers at the Doha Round of negotiations, and most importantly, discussions of issues and concerns of domestic preparedness for further opening up of the services sector.
pp 190, #0816, Rs 200/US$20, ISBN: 978-81-8257-109-9

Training Needs for Commercial and Economic Diplomacy: An Indian Case Study
This Report is an outcome of the project entitled, “Capacity Building of Indian Government Officials on Commercial and Economic Diplomacy” supported by the Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. The purpose of this Report is to carry out the need assessment for formal training to Indian government officials and business executives, who are handling issues related to commercial and economic diplomacy. It was envisaged that CUTS would be undertaking this survey before initiating a formal beginning of the project. This would have helped CUTS in organising customised training programme, while, assessing the need of training for various levels of government officials and business executives.
pp 38, #0806, Rs 200/US$20, ISBN: 978-81-8257-101-3

Modules on Trade and Regulatory Issues

Module-9: Assessing the Implications from Trade Liberalisation-Use of Different Methods and their Limitations
Selim Raihan

This module introduces and explains the need for economic models and modelling in the context of complex interactions among economic agents and decision-making exercises. It clarifies two modes of assessment, ex-ante and ex-post, with the help of examples. While describing the basic features of econometric model and computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, comparative analysis is also presented in simple terms. A simple description of different models and their use is taken up in this module to serve as a reference guide for beginners in quantitative data analysis.

Module-7: The Doha Round of Negotiations by the WTO Members
Archana Jatkar

This module details the commencement of the Doha Round of negotiations by the Members of the WTO (World Trade Organisation) and its progress made till July 2007. It attempts to form an understanding on current negotiations and other issues for further negotiations. It talks about the status of negotiations on Agriculture, NAMA (non-agricultural market Access, i.e. industrial goods), Services, IPRs (Intellectual Property Rights), Aid for Trade, Trade-Remedial Measures and Rules, while explaining the various facets of conflicting interest among the WTO Members on each of the issues.

Module-6: An Introduction to the Multilateral Trading System
Simi T. Balakrishnan

This module provides a comprehensive overview of the functioning of the multilateral trading system. It tells the basics of the formation of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trad) and subsequently the WTO (World Trade Organisation). It introduces WTO’s organisational set up along with its fundamental principles and modes of operation. Breifly, it talks about various WTO agreements and related ministerial declaration and decisions. It also informs about other WTO-related issues such as overview of various rounds of trade negotiations, trade policy review, dispute settlement procedure, S&DT (Special and Differential Treatment), technical assistance.

Mainstreaming Development in the WTO Developing Countries in the Doha Round
This book is partly a record of a personal intellectual journey; partly an attempt to provide institutional memory for the next generation of trade negotiators; and partly an effort to provide a platform for others to continue to build on, in pursuit of the goal of building a fair, balanced and development-friendly multilateral trading system.

Beyond Rhetoric Ensuring the Economic Partnership Agreements
This publication provides a discussion on benchmarks for EPAs. It seeks to move the discussion on EPAs from suppositions and “fears and illusions” to possible realities by proposing standards against which EPAs should be judged and their implementation monitored. This way, the agreements to be entered into between the EU and the ACP states can be judged against their own standards set in the Cotonou partnership Agreement.

South Asian Positions in the WTO Doha Round In Search of A True Development Agenda Volume – 2
As part of the Doha Round of negotiation by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Members on agriculture it has been agreed, while final modalities and measures are yet to be decided, that developing countries would have a category of agricultural products as Special Products (SPs), which would be exempted from tariff cuts (new market access commitments as part of a Doha deal) and there will also be Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM), which would allow them to increase their import tariff levels when there is an import surge.

Qualitative analysis of a potential Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and India
This study on the potential implications of a free trade agreement between the EU and India is composed of four principal elements. With respect to each elements, there is a detailed Annex, which provides the substantive analysis and discussion. In this main body of the report we have summarised the principal findings and conclusions derived from that detailed work. For a full discussion of the issues the reader should consult the Annexes themselves.
Executive Summary

Annex 1

Annex 2

Annex 3

Annex 4

Annex on NTBs

Experience with Trade Liberalisation from Select Developing Countries
International trade is increasingly considered as one of the important means to eradicate poverty in developing countries. However, trade in itself is not a panacea and is contingent on host of complementary policy issues before it can bring positive development dividend. The evidence from implementation of the Uruguay round of trade agreements shows that while some sectors/countries benefited, a large section of the poor across the globe were either left behind or adversely affected. One reason for this is that international trade is looked through the prism of WTO rules and procedures are commercial in its approach. The human element or in broader context the developmental aspect is missing. Though the Doha Declaration of the trade ministers mentioned about mainstreaming trade into national development strategy, there is hardly any coherent or cogent initiative being undertaken at the country level.


Movement of Natural Persons and South Asian Countries
South Asian countries, particularly India, are known protagonists of liberalisation of services trade under Mode 4. The study looks at the case of South Asian countries, which have got a huge potential to increase their export of services through Mode 4. It focuses mainly on four countries – Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. However, there are several constraints that South Asian countries face in exporting their services under Mode 4 to developed countries.

It focuses on the significance of Mode 4 for South Asia, the kinds of barriers faced by these countries in supplying services through Mode 4, and how the GATS negotiations can be used to advance their export interests under this particular mode of service supply. Besides, the study also highlights the role of complementary domestic policy reforms and measures, which are equally important for harnessing benefits, if trade under Mode 4 is liberalised.
pp 114, #0427, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN: 81-8257-044-1

WTO Agriculture Negotiations and South Asian Countries
Agriculture, in all its manifestations, has always been a sensitive and emotional issue for all countries, but it is more so for the poor countries of the South. This paper looks into various commonalities in the economic situation of South Asian countries, their sensitivity attached to agriculture, and above all, a common approach to globalisation. In view of these realities, the paper tries to explore a common agenda that South Asian countries can follow during future negotiations on the WTO Agreement on Agriculture. Now, the Doha Round of trade negotiations has entered into a crucial phase after the July developments. The ‘July Package’” has resulted in an agreement over the framework for establishing modalities in agriculture. In light of this, there cannot be a more opportune time for publishing this paper.
pp 47, #0423, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN: 81-8257-040-9

The WTO agreement on rules of origin – Implications for South Asia
The recent and rapid proliferation of preferential trading agreements and the increasing number of countries using rules of origin (RoO) to discriminate in the treatment of goods at importation has focused considerable attention on this issue. RoO can be divided into two categories: non-preferential and preferential. The paper tries to critically examine the WTO proposal on the harmonised rules of origin. The study has looked at its implications on South Asian countries, especially India. Further, in view of the contentious nature of the RoO pertaining to textiles, and the big stakes involved for South Asia, the study places special emphasis on textiles and clothing.
pp 40, #0422, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN: 81-8257-038-7

Protectionism and trade remedial measures
This paper examines how protectionism has influenced the use of trade remedial measures. It examines the trends of imposition of trade remedial measures. This trend clearly shows that countries have found anti-dumping measures a safe haven for extending protection to domestic industries. The paper also makes a comparison between anti-dumping measures and safeguard measures. It demonstrates that countries have preferred using anti-dumping measures over safeguard measures because the former can be easily used for extending protection to the domestic industry for a longer time.
pp 45, #0420, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN 81-8257-039-5

Demystifying agriculture market access formula – A developing country perspective after the Cancun setback
Agriculture continues to dog the debate at the WTO, with a knockout effect on nearly all other issues under negotiations. Following the Cancun debacle, negotiators are locked in Geneva to move the agenda forward. At the Cancún meeting, a draft ministerial text on agriculture emerged, known as the Derbez Text. It was not surprising that at Cancún the WTO members failed to accept the ministerial text on agriculture. The Derbez Text had made the framework very complex, which the paper, “Demystifying Agriculture Market Access Formula”, tries to demystify.
pp 39, #0417, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN: 81-8257-033-6

Trade-labour debate – The State of Affairs
Today, the problem of a linkage between trade and labour standards in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) has become one of the most pressing and challenging policy puzzles for the international community. The purpose of the study is to rehearse the never-ending story on the pros and cons of the trade-labour linkage. It also seeks to assess the current and possible future direction of the debate from the developing countries’ perspective. It is hoped that this approach will provide developing countries with concrete policy suggestions in terms of the way forward.
pp 48, #0410, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN: 81-8257-025-5

Liberalising Trade in Environmental Goods and Services – In Search of ‘Win-Win-Win’ Outcomes
Ever since the Doha Ministerial Conference in 2001, trade in environmental goods and services has assumed a centre-stage position, its importance being amplified by the fact that many “environmental” tasks such as waste-water management and sanitation, traditionally considered the preserve of the public sector, are increasingly being privatised. The excellent analysis of this issue involving environmental trade concludes with soundly reasoned policy recommendations which show the direction that future negotiations must take if the originally envisaged ‘win-win-win’ situation is to be achieved.
pp 44, #0402, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN 81-8257-019-0


Dealing with protectionist standard setting – Effectiveness of WTO agreements on TBT & SPS
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Safeguards (SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreements – enshrined in the WTO – are meant to keep undesirable trade practices at bay. These Agreements try to ensure adherence to standards, certification and testing procedures, apart from technical protection to the people, by countries, while trading in the international arena.

This research report is a sincere attempt to fathom the relevance of SPS and TBT Agreements, their necessity in the present global economic scenario and, of course, the development of case law related to the Agreements, along with a brief description of the impact of this case law on developing countries.
pp 50, #0324, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN: 81-87222-68-9

Competitiveness of service sectors in South Asia – Role and Implications of GATS
This research report attempts to emphasise on the relevance of General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) for developing economies, particularly in South Asia. It also examines the potential gains from trade liberalisation in services, with a specific focus on hospital services, and raises legitimate concerns about increases in exports affecting adversely the domestic availability of such services. It highlights how the ongoing GATS negotiations can be used to generate a stronger liberalising momentum in the health sector.
pp 112, #0321, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN: 81-8257-000-X

Bridging the differences – Analyses of five issues of the WTO agenda
This book is a product of the project, EU-India Network on Trade and Development (EINTAD), launched about a year back at Brussels. CUTS and the University of Sussex are the lead partners in this project, implemented with financial support from the European Commission (EC). The CUTS-Sussex University study has been jointly edited by Prof. L Alan Winters of the University of Sussex and Pradeep S Mehta, Secretary-General of CUTS, India. The five issues discussed in the book are Investment, Competition Policy, Anti-dumping, Textiles & Clothing, and Movement of Natural Persons. Each of these papers has been co-authored by eminent researchers from Europe and India.
pp 245, #0317, Rs.350/US$50, ISBN: 81-87222-92-1

TRIPs and public health – Ways forward for South Asia
Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) has always been one of the most contentious issues in the WTO. This research document tries to find an answer to one specific question: what genuine choices do policymakers in South Asian developing nations now have, more so after the linkage between the trade regime and pharmaceuticals? Starting with a brief overview of the key features of the corporate model of pharmaceuticals, the paper provides some insight into the challenges faced by the governments in South Asian countries. The aim is to anchor the present discussion of public health and the impact of TRIPs in the socio-cultural environment of this region.
pp 45, #0309, Rs.100/US$25, ISBN: 81-87222-83-2

Market Access Implications of SPS and TBT – Bangladesh Perspective
As both tariffs and other traditional trade barriers are being progressively lowered, there are growing concerns about the fact that new technical non-tariff barriers are taking their place, such as sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and technical regulations and standards.

The poor countries have been denied market access on quite a number of occasions when they failed to comply with a developed country’s SPS or TBT requirements or both. The seriousness of this denial of market access is often not realised unless their impact on exports, income and employment is quantified.

In this paper, the author focuses on the findings of a 1998 case study into the European Commission’s ban of fishery products from Bangladesh into the EU, imposed in July 1997.

This research report intends to increase awareness in the North about the ground-level situation in poor and developing countries. At the same time, it makes some useful suggestions on how the concerns of LDCs can be addressed best within the multilateral framework. The suggestions are equally applicable to the developing countries.
pp 33, #0215, Rs.100/US$10 ISBN: 81-87222-69-7


Negotiating the TRIPs Agreement – India’s Experience and some Domestic Policy Issues
This paper shows particularities about the subject that distinguished the TRIPs negotiations from the other agreements that make up the Uruguay Round results and, analysed the way in which the TRIPs Agreement was actually negotiated and handled.
pp 45, #0111, Rs.100/US$30, ISBN: 81-87222-50-6


Non-trade Concerns in the WTO Agreement on Agriculture
This research report, written by Dr. Biswajit Dhar and Dr. Sachin Chaturvedi of the Research and Information System for the Non-aligned and Other Developing Countries, New Delhi, provides a detailed analysis of non-trade concerns, covering the various dimensions indicated by the Agreement on Agriculture of the World Trade Organisation.
pp 29, #9912, Rs.100/US$30, ISBN: 81-87222-30-1

TRIPs, Biotechnology and Global Competition
This study shows, with some evidence that the provisions in the TRIPs agreement concerning biotechnology are of great concern to the developing world. According to the new GATT agreement, all biotechnology products may be patented. Nearly 80 percent of all biotechnology patents are currently held by large multinationals.
pp 19, #9709, Rs.100/US$30, ISBN: 81-87222-02-6